Every startup faces multiple choices and decisions when it comes to technology. Whether you’re wondering what site search you should use or what is the best email marketing tool, knowledge is power. A group of Seedcamp entrepreneurs started a startup tools wiki for that purpose, and we thought it would be well suited here. For modifications, please edit the original document here. An additional list of business resources for startups is available here.
*May 2016* Product Hunt Collections
Product Hunt is a community of early adopters and founders, sharing and discussing new product launches, podcasts and more. It’s chucked full of insights for founders. Some examples:
- An API for everything – collection of useful APIs
- Apps for Product Managers – Tools, books and other stuff that you might find yourself using frequently as a PM.
- The Ultimate Marketing Stack for Startups – How to get the word out about your product.
- And one of my favourites – Startup Stash – a curated list of 400 resources for startups.
*Added – August 2014* Productivity tools
- Slack – connect the dots between different teams, tools and drives (Jira + Trello + Dropbox + Google Drive)
- Campaign monitor – build beautiful outbound emails and newsletters
- Vungle – mobile monetization through video ads
*Added – Nov 2013* Outsourcing and talent, mobile engagement tools
Outsourcing/ talent markets
Mobile push notifications/app engagement
- Urban Airship
- Kahuna – http://www.usekahuna.com/
*Added – August 2013* Lean Startup Tool List, HN Tools of the Trade, IL Venture and invoicing and recruiting tools for startups
- Israeli startups! Make sure you are listed at ilventure.co – directory of Israeli startups, investors, tools and people from the “startup nation”.
- List of tools for lean startups http://list.ly/list/9E-tools-and-services-for-a-lean-startup
- Hacker News Tools of the Trade 2013 – https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=5235137
- HR and Finance services for startups:
- KashFlow – has payroll integration
- PRHoot – pay roll (UK-centric)
- ZenPayroll – delightful employee payroll software
- BambooHR – Employee Records, Benefit Information, Payroll Data, etc.
- Expensify – billing, expenses, receipts
- Harvest – online time tracking
- Freshbooks – cloud accounting and invoicing
- Tomigo – social recruiting
*Added – March 2013* Startup Intelligence tools
Everything you needed to find information about startups. From premium paid subscription databases to free tools showcasing new startups and startup maps, The Ultimate Startup Intelligence Tools List is guaranteed to help you get your research done.
*Updated* Startups for Startups, Google Startup Tools and HackerNews Vendor List
Startups for startups – the top B2B tools used by Startups – Includes the list of top 50 startup vendors in 2012 by Vendorstack, a reviews and Q&A platform on enterprise vendors for startups and mid-market companies. Also includes the most popular platforms, based on a year of data on business buy and sell marketplace, Flippa.com.
Google DevRel created a page of Google resources for startups – from the site’s description: “This site contains a selection of tools you will find useful when building, measuring, and enhancing your apps. Once you have a first version of your app running, you can use the tools on this site to get it into the hands of users and to get paid.”
Hackernews list of “Tools of the Trade” for startups – includes over 150 SaaS tools used by startups, and over 150 comments with interesting insights from founders. Also check out Tune Your Startup, who is trying to streamline these lists into one tool.
Tools for Hackathons – added Dec 2012
Online education and skill learning
Read post Why Learning should be your top 2013 new year’s resolution for a full list
Inbound Marketing vs Interruption marketing
Search for apps tools
Subtle Patterns: Need background images? Subtle patterns give you a gallery of very subtle patterns. High Quality, and open sourced!
Cheat Sheets: Equip youself with HTML/CSS cheatsheets! Scan all the tags at once and see which one fits your needs!
Free Icons: Because Icons make your site beautiful.
LiveRoad: A Great IDE for design is very helpful. It’s helpful to find an developer tool that allows you to write html/css and renders the view in real time, so you don’t have to change -> save -> go to browser -> refresh.
Social Buttons: Want to add Twitter, Facebook, Google, buttons? Get them here.
Masonry: Create a pinterest like layout!
Cubism: Create TimeLine visualization of data.
Here’s the exciting part! Let’s talk about tools and libraries that help you implement your Ideas faster:
Tokbox: That’s us! Use us to power any video chat applications (talkshow, education apps, collaboration, etc). We have an iOS SDK as well, for web-web, mobile-mobile, web-mobile video chat and video messaging.
Twilio: Need to call/txt get a phone number from your web/mobile application? Check them out.
Leaflet: Need Maps? Try Leaflet. Most devs go with google maps, but I personally like leaflet and I feel like it’s easier to use/develop with.
Rovi: Need Metadata for music/movie/actors, etc.? Rovi API has everything you need for information. Generate album/movie information on the fly!
Rdio: Want to add a music player on your website to play music? Rdio provides the music and the player via an API
Box: Need file storage (for physical files like mp3, flv, etc). Box API lets you store files dynamically!
Singly: Provides your app with your personal Data from foursquare, instagram, etc etc.
Sendgrid: Need to send email out to users? Use Sendgrid! They make sure that your emails never to go spam folders.
If you are a web developer, you don’t have time to learn iOS or Java during the weekend. It’s better to use what you know already.
Launchrock: Website is not ready? Put up a LaunchRock Page and get your marketing working right away. When your website is ready, you will have users already!
VoiceBunny: Need a sexy voice-over for your videos? Send it to VoiceBunny!
Compare Ninja: Own your competitors by creating a Comparison Table quickly!
Something you need to do but not on the list? Tweet at me bro!
Sinatra: Super easy to use, the only drawback is that you have to learn ruby setup your database. I hate configuring stuff, so I usually use this as an option if I don’t need persistant information.
Railscasts: If you’re not comfortable with rails, I wouldn’t recommend using it for the hackathon. It has a high learning curve. But if you insist, check out railscasts. Ryan Bates create screencast for just about everything you might want to do with a rails app.
Heroku: Deploy your app to heroku. It’s free, supports ruby, nodejs, static files, and a few other languages. Did I mention it’s free? You have nothing to loose.
- Server Monitoring
- Fnord (resources hosting)
- Gatling (resources hosting)
- kHTTPd (resources hosting)
- JS/CSS Compression Using YUI Compressor
- mod_perlite (Perl)
- PHP-FPM (a patch for php4/5 to greatly improve FastCGI SAPI usage)
- pgbouncer (Lightweight connection pooler for PostgreSQL, from the developers of Skype)
- Varnish Cache (reverse proxy)
- YSlow (performance checklist)
- Crazy Egg
- Google Analytics
- Site Pulse – Live Web Traffic Monitor and Analytics
Accounting, Taxes & Payroll
Invoicing & Payments
Subscription Payments / Management
- cakePHP (PHP)
- Code Igniter
- Django (Python)
- Drupal (PHP)
- Kohana (PHP)
- Rails (Ruby)
- Zend Framework (PHP)
- web.py (Python)
- WordPress (PHP)
Sharing & storing files
Customer Relationship Management
Feedback and FAQ
- Get Satisfaction
- desk.com (salesforce)
- SurveyMonkey (user surveys)
Test- and Behavior-Driven Development
- Comapping.com (online mindmapping collaborative tool)
- OpenGoo (OpenSource and Lightweight)
Code Hosting and Version Control
- assembla (svn, git, mercurial + trac)
- Aptana Cloud (svn, IDE, php, java, rails etc…)
- bitbucket (mercurial only, basically a copy of github… which isn’t bad)
- code spaces (svn)
- CVSDude (svn)
- github (git only)
- launchpad (bzr only, also only open source projects)
- Unfuddle (hosted svn/git, ticketing, etc.)
- Patch-tag (Darcs)
Social Media Tracking/Marketing
Browser Compatibility tools
Private beta invitations & management:
Scanning / Document Management
Ad Serving Technology
- Open X (Open source Ad server)
Project Management tools
Steve Blank’s Lean Startup Resources
Research, Web prototyping, Testing and Building Tools
Lists of Tools from Others
- HBS Startup Tribe Tools List – from Tom Eisenmann at HBS
- PBworks startup tools List
- Startup Foundry tools list
- Small Business tools list
- Lean Startup Circle – Google Group for startup advice
SEO and Analytics Tutorials
- Startup Metrics for Pirates – read this before you spend time elsewhere
- SaaS Metrics Tutorial – worth reading as well
- Analytics review – mixpanel vs kissmetric vs google analytics review
- Analytics blog – good analytics tutorials
- SEO for Startups – good tutorial
- Andrew Chen’s Essays – great web customer acquisition tutorials
- Google Analytics – web analytics from the borg
- Kissmetrics– actionable analytics
- GetClicky – real-time web analytics
- Swix – analytics for social media and online
- Mixpanel– real-time event tracking
- Crazyegg– visualize analytics
- Mint – site analytics
- Visistat – web analytics measure marketing campaigns
- Webtrends – analytics and segments
- Chartbeat – web analytics
Search Engine Optimization Tools
- AdGrok – Google adwords optimization tool
- SEO Digger – Find the top ten keywords ranking to your websites
- SEMRush – SEO and campaign management tool
- Clickable – Pay per click management
- Spyfu – tells you how much adwords cost
- Market Samurai – SEO Keyword Analysis Tool
Online Marketing Suites
- HubSpot – online marketing and web analytics system
- Performable – personable web analytics/lifecycle marketing
- Custora – customer retention, churn reduction, lifetime value
- Zoho – free/cheap web customer relationship mgmt software
- Highrise – small business CRM
- Zferral – affiliate and referral marketing on the web
- Genoo – marketing automation software
- MarketBright – marketing automation suite
- Tout – email blast and mgmt software
- Campaigner – email marketing suite
- Exact Target – social media and email marketing
- Postmark – email blast and mgmt software
- Mad Mimi – email blast software
- SendGrid – email blast software
- Campaign Monitor – basic email software
- Emma – basic email marketing
- MailChimp – free basic email blast software
- Quickker – Create surveys, manage respondents, track responses
- Qualtrics – cloud-based survey, free account
- KissInsights – survey visitors while they surf your site
- Wufoo – create contact forms, online surveys and event registrations.
- Poplytics – online surveys and analytics
- AskYourTargetMarket – market research surveys
- SurveyMonkey– granddaddy of on-line surveys
- Amazon Mechanical Turk – you can set up a question and get answers
- PickFu – A/B testing $5 for 50 opinions
- Dropbox – store, sync, and, share files online.
- Google Apps – Email, Chat, Docs
- Skype– free voice and video communication tool
- Campfire – team collaboration
- Slideshare – share Powerpoints and docs with customers
- Ning – Create your own social network
- Yammer – free enterprise social network
- Doodle – online group scheduling
- Freeconferencecall.com – Free conference calls
- Syncpad – collaborative whiteboard
- Stack Overflow – questions and answers for programmers
- Quora – questions and answers for non-programmers
- Yahoo Answers – post questions, sometimes get answers
- Disqus – Comments Platform
- WordPress– king of blogging platforms…doubles as startup website
- Tumblr – another blogging platform
- Posterous – yet another blogging platform
- jMockups – convert existing website into a mockup then redesign and share without editing any HTML/CSS
- Balsamiq– rapid wireframing tool. Create software mockups in minutes
- Mockflow – online/offline, extensible wireframing tool w/design library
- OmniGraffle – it’s been around before the web even existed
- JustinMind– define web and mobile apps with interactive prototypes
- Wirify – turn any webpage into a wireframe
- LucidChart – Cloud-based drawing tool
- Axure – Wireframing, prototypes: buil-in widgets and shapes
- HotGloo – Online Wireframing Tool
- Mocksup – Share your web site mockups
- Mockingbird – Mock it up and share web site wireframes
- Protoshare – website wireframing
- Free Wireframe templates for iPhone, iPad and Web
- Wireframing Tutorial
Landing Page Tools
- Unbounce – create, publish & test promotion specific landing pages
- Fivesecondtest– Landing page optimization
- Zozolo– start a website within Facebook
- Weebly– get a site up quickly with no tools
- Microsoft WebMatrix – Web server, database, and ASP.NET and PHP
- AppMakr – Mobile Ap Creatorcreate quick mobile apps
- EditMe – create collaborative websites
- NewRelic – manage and tune website performance for Rails
- GooglePageSpeed – optimize your web pages
- 99 Designs– marketplace for crowdsourced graphic design
- IconFinder – great way to find free graphic icons on the web
- Launchbit – online web site class for novices
Mobile Testing/Build Tools
- TestFlight – IOS beta testing on the fly.
- Corona – mobile development platform
- Twilio – add mobile and sms to your app
- PerfectoMobile – mobile app testing
- MobiReady – testing tool evaluates website mobile-readiness
- GoMez – test your website for “mobile ready”
- Rigor – test/monitor performance of mobile apps/websites
- W3C Mobile OK – test your website for mobile
- Google Page Speed – test your mobile speed
- Chargify – Recurring billing without the headaches
- Recurly – Subscription billing
- Aria – online billing platform
- Braintree – online credit card merchant processing
- Vindicia – on demand billing and fraud management
- Volusion – shopping cart software
- CheddarGetter – online recurring billing
- Cloudware City– online app store for subscription services
- Spreedly – sell subscriptions on your site. signup, upgrade, trial pricing
- Zuora – online subscription management
- FeeFighters – find the cheapest credit card processors
- Tender – support, knowledgebase tool for your site
- GetSatisfaction – conversations between companies / customers.
- SnapEngage – live chat integrates with your apps
- Zendesk – web help software
- UserVoice – turn customer feedback into action
- Kampyle – turn customer feedback into sales and relationships
- Ideaffect – customer feedback, vote, comment, manage
- Olark – live customer chat
Website Usability Testing
- Usertesting – $39 live users testing your site – cheap
- Userfy – live user testing of your site
- WhatUsersDo – UK live usability testing
- Clicktale – watch live clicks and browsing, optimize usability
- Usabilla – Micro usability tests
- OptimalWorkshop – tool suite for remote user research
- Clickheat – heat map of a website (where do users click)
- Clixpy – tracks users clicks and browsing
- Openhallway – lets you remotely record user test scenarios
- Google Page Speed – test your web page speed
- VisualWebSiteOptimizer – A/B testing (split tests)
- Optimizely – A/B testing (split tests)
- Adobe BrowserLab – cross browser testing for Creative Suite
- Google Website Optimizer – google optimizer for A/B testing (split tests)
- Silverback – usability testing for designers and developers
- FeedbackArmy – web usability testing
Cloud Services and Tools
- Amazon Web Services – Amazon’s cloud solution
- Google App Engine – Googles version of a cloud solution
- Scalr – Tool to manage scaling servers in Amazon’s cloud.
- Rackspace – Managed and cloud hosting
- Linode – Linux virtual servers in the cloud
Web Development Tools
- Rubyon Rails– open source framework for Ruby
- CakePHP – a PHP open source framework
- Drupal – open source content management platform
- Heroku – Ruby cloud platform.Rails deployment made easy
- Django – high-level Python framework
- Cappuccino – open source framework for app development
- Kodingen – cloud development environment, code editor, hosting service, collaboration platform.
- TeamCity – continuous integration and unit testing, code quality analysis, pre-tested commits, reporting on build problems
- Sauce Labs – cross-browser testing in the cloud
- yUML – sketch uml diagrams.
- WebSequenceDiagrams –sketch sequence diagrams. automatic links to generated images
- Rietveld – asynchronous code reviews on changesets
- Tech*if*er0*urs – blog on roadmap for learning rails
- Lady Ada – embedded applications and kits
- Adafruit – embedded applications and kits
- Arduino – open source hardware platform
- Microsemi (Actel) smartfusion: A low power development board full of peripherals and an FPGA chip
- Digikey and Sparkfun for general components:
- Sunstone – Printed Circuit Boards
- TI, Cypress, and Analog devices for microcontrollers and IC’s
- Basecamp– web-based project management and collaboration tool.
- Github – Free public repositories, collaborator management, issue tracking, wikis, downloads, code review, graphs
- Pivotal Tracker – Agile project management tool that enables real time collaboration.
- Mercurial – free, distributed source code control management system
- Bitbucket – free code hosting site for Mercurial
- Preceden – simple way to make timelines for presentations
- Milestone Planner – planner for deadline or outcome driven environments.
- AgileZen – project management visually see and interact with your work
- Kanbanery – Simple online team or personal kanban board
- LeanKit Kanban – Great for visualizing work of product development
- Kanban Pad – “Nice and lean” and free online Kanban tool
- Banana Scrum – A tool simple as Scrum itself.
- Kanban Tool – Another Kanban tool
- Acunote – Agile project management
- Agilezen – Lean project management
- Rally – agile product management
- VersionOne – agile product management and Scrum tool
- ScrumPad – Agile project management tool collaborative product life-cycle
- RallyDev – Automates Agile / Scrum development
- 5pm – Online project management tool
- GoPlan – collaborative project management
- Unfuddle –hosted project management solution for software teams.
- Lighthouse – Issue Tracking Tool.
- Bontq – hosted bug tracking and project management needs.
- Managewith.us – Collaborative Task Manager
- Mavenlink – manage project communications, documents, schedules, budgets, payments
- Industrial Logic – Agile eLearning
Misc Office Help
- Google Apps – cloud mail server, calendar, docs, etc.
- Grasshopper – virtual phone system
- Ringio – cloud phone system
- RingCentral – cloud based phone system
- InDinero – easy business finance software
- Expensify – billing, expenses, receipts
- Resumator – applicant tracking and social recruiting
- RecruiterBox – recruitment software, applicant tracking
- ActiveInterview – Video interviewing
- BambooHR – Employee Records, Benefit Information, Payroll Data, etc.
- Xobni – Outlook plugin to search
- Amazon Mechanical Turk – set up any task and get answers
- Elance – find/hire freelancers
- Odesk – hire low-cost international engineering talent
- Freelancer – outsourcing for small business
- VWorker – find/hire freelancers
Boilerplate Venture Funding Documents
- YCombinator Series AA Equity Financing Documents
- National Venture Capital Association – model legal documents
- Series Seed Documents – Fenwick & West Seed Investment Standard Forms, used by most angels
- TechStars Model Seed Funding Documents – Cooley Godward
- WSGR Term Sheet Generator
- Orrick, Herrington Term Sheet Generator
- Founders Institute Plain Preferred Term Sheet – WSGR
- Legal Wiki – Florian Feder crowdsourced documents
List of Angel/SuperAngel Investors for entrepreneurs
Useful blogs and links for startups
Best of Y-Combinator Startup Advice
Raising Venture Capital
Founder Equity Issues
Incubator List/ Local Startup Resources/ Startup Q&A
- List of Startup Incubators
- Startup Resources – The Startup Digest
- Startup Questions and Answers
- Uber list of Startup Resources – Legal, Equity, etc. – Bottom Line Law Group
Executive / Advisory Board Compensation
- Comp Study – Executive Compensation Website – unbelievably useful
- Expert CEO Compensation page – also incredibly useful
- SaaS Sales Team Compensation – Philippe Botteri, Bessemer Venture Partners
- VentureHacks on Startup Advisory Boards – great basics
- Walker Law: Tips for Entrepreneurs
- Startup Law 101 – George Grellas
- Intellectual Property Law For Startups Blog
- Yoichiro “Yokum” Taku – Startup Company Lawyer
- Startup Law Blog – Davis Wright Tremaine, Joe Wallin
- Orrick – Startup Legal Tool Kit
- Goodwin, Proctor – Founders Workbench
- Law & Disorder: ARS Technica Legal Blog
- Likelihood of Confusion-trademark, copyright and Internet Law
- Technology & Marketing Law Blog
- American Bar Association Best Legal Blogs
European Start-up Essentials
VC Cafe knows that as an entrepreneur you need all the help you can get. That’s why we gathered a collection of 20 online resources for European startups that will help you with business plans, recruiting, publicity and networking.
1. Seedcamp: They provide a catalyst for the next generation of great entrepreneurs, help them take risks, think big, and succeed. In other words they are entrepreneurs that help others like them succeed in their new business.
2. SVPG: They want to share senior level experience and best practices with technology companies. Their Partners all come from industry, where each has held senior level executive positions delivering industry-leading products. They are not career consultants-they bring experience to the table.
3. VC News: Dow Jones financial information service provides unparalleled reporting and analysis of the entire global venture capital industry, from fundraising developments to financings, liquidity events to people moves and other key developments at venture capital firms and portfolio companies in every industry and region.
4. Y Combinator: They provide a series of AA equity financing documents that are written with simpler words so start-up companies will have an easier starting point. Their goal is to make angel funding rounds for startups easier for both sides.
5. cmypitch.com: Network for small business, connecting entrepreneurs with each other, investors and service providers. It’s a video-based web site that provides a platform to help entrepreneurs succeed.
6. UCL Advances: UCL Advances stimulates collaboration among researchers, business and investors driving innovations that benefit society and the economy. UCL has built a reputation as a pioneer of collaboration between industry and academia.
7. TIE UK: TiE, a not-for-profit global network of entrepreneurs and professionals, TiE is an organization of industry professionals who share the common interests of promoting and fostering entrepreneurial efforts.
8. Regus: Regus is the world’s largest provider of workplace solutions, offering the widest range of products and services that allow individuals and companies to work however, wherever, and whenever they need to.
9. Business Link: They help Start-Up companies, Running businesses or companies that are looking to grow and develop how to manage their finances, employ people, find and keep costumers, taxes, tray internationally and many more.
10. NESTA: They invest in early-stage companies, inform and shape policy, and deliver practical programs that inspire others to solve the big challenges of the future.
11. Princes Trust: They are a UK charity company that helps young people overcome barriers and get their lives working.
12. British Library Business & IP Centre: Funded by the London Development Agency, the British Library supports inventors, small businesses and entrepreneurs from that first spark of inspiration to successfully launching and developing a business. The Centre offers free access to the UK’s most comprehensive collection of business and intellectual property information.
13. Growing Business: Growingbusiness.co.uk is the leading online resource for entrepreneurs. Their practical guides cover all the issues an entrepreneur like you will face when expanding your business. From raising finance to business strategy and going public, they have all the need-to-know information you require to become a successful entrepreneur running a rapidly expanding and profitable company.
14. BPS: Business Plan Services’ collaboration with the world-renowned London Business School reinforces its position within the commercial marketplace as the UK’s leading practice that is dedicated to providing full assistance with business planning.
15. Company Guides: They specialize in helping high growth companies and entrepreneurs seeking corporate finance advice and private equity investment. They also publish a detailed directory of sources of finance and advice.
16. Sturtuply: They help the right job seekers find you and make the whole team–building process as easy as possible.
17. CrunchBoard: They are a job board that gives you access to millions of technology and business savvy readers of Tec Crunch, Mobile Crunch, Crunch Gear and other top technology blogs. Also check http://uk.crunchboard.com
18. OnStartups.com: Dharmesh Shah brings his experience by this site that isfor and about software startups.
19. Startupslive: With Stratupslive It’s your chance to hear the people behind some the UK’s most successful businesses tell their stories and also network with fellow budding entrepreneurs and provide you with quality independently written, practical advice to help you start your own business.
20. The Funded: TheFunded.com is an online community of entrepreneurs to research, rate, and review funding sources worldwide. In addition, TheFunded.com allows entrepreneurs to view and share term sheets, to assist one other finding good investor, and to discuss the many facets of operating a business.
|www.innovationcentral.co.uk||Useful sources of information and awards for businesses based in Camden|
|www.g2i.org||Offers practical assistance to build technology businesses|
|www.centa.co.uk||Centa Business Services is a business consultancy company providing impartial advice
and hands on support to small businesses
|www.bl4london.com||Business Link for London is the small business support and advice service for London,
providing free, impartial and comprehensive advice to businesses to help them start up
|www.bl.uk||The British Library is a one-stop-shop for business start-up information|
|www.lodestoneip.com||Lodestone Innovation Partners (IP) Ltd are spin-out specialists|
|www.bizplans.co.uk||Business Plan Services (BPS) specialises in assisting clients with all aspects of effective
|www.ideas21.co.uk||Ideas21 hold free one-to-one monthly half hour consultations with experts in business
who help people interested in invention and innovation
|www.ipo.gov.uk/myip.pdf||“My IP” – produced by the UK Intellectual Property Office|
|www.ipaware.net/resources/resources||Resources promoted by IPAN – the Intellectual Property Awareness Network|
|www.livinginnovation.org||Reveals how successful companies innovate|
|www.entex.co.uk||The Entrepreneurial Exchange|
|www.totallyabsurd.com||Features America’s goofiest patents|
|www.businessownersideacafe.com||Small business ideas, grants and plans|
|www.firsttuesday.com||A network for innovation and technology|
Israeli Startup Essentials (under construction…)
1. IVC Online: (offers a paid database of Israeli startups, funds and research publication)
2. Invest in Israel: The investment promotion center of Israel’s Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, Foreign Trade Administration (see industry reports and M&A summaries for the year)
3. MATIMOP: the Israeli Industry Center for R&D. A free online database of startups.
4. The Central Bureau of Statistics: a useful tool for research of population and reach.